The Intersectional Effects of Race and Gender on Time to Reincarceration

The Intersectional Effects of Race and Gender on Time to Reincarceration

People of color are disproportionately incarcerated and reincarcerated after release. When compared to women, men of all races report higher rates of recidivism. However, minimal research examines the intersectional effects of race and gender on recidivism. Proportional hazards models estimated the effects of varied risk factors for Black men, White men, Black women, and White women on 8-year recidivism rates among 21,462 incarcerated Black and White men and women. Black men were incarcerated more often and more quickly when compared to all other race/gender groups. However, with two exceptions (age at intake and marital status), Black men had lower risk scores on most variables when compared to other members of the sample. The interaction of race and gender was a potent predictor of time to reincarceration, even when controlling for a range of identified risk factors. Additional research is needed to examine the individual and structural mechanisms that lead to recidivism for Black men beyond hypothesized criminogenic risk.