Behavioral health literacy: A new construct to improve outcomes among incarcerated individuals
| Author: Carrie Pettus, Stephanie Kennedy, Tanya Renn, Stephen Tripodi, Danielle Rudes, Faye Taxman
Incarcerated individuals have disproportionate rates of behavioral health disorders, which bring people into incarceration settings. Although lack of motivation to engage in treatment is often used to explain these outcomes, individuals may have limited knowledge about these disorders and how to access treatment. We propose a new construct called behavioral health literacy to facilitate linkage between individuals and appropriate treatment options.
Category: Substance Use, Mental Health
Protocol: Multi-site RCT of Comprehensive Trauma Informed Reentry Services for young males releasing from state prisons
| Author: Carrie Pettus, Tanya Renn, Stephen Tripodi, Sarah Tamburri
Research suggests untreated trauma symptoms contribute to high rates of incarceration and re-incarceration among young males. As trauma symptomatology can increase during reentry, implementing trauma treatment during this time is critical. This study evaluates the impact of the Resiliency in Stressful Experiences (RISE) program for 18-35-year-old incarcerated males releasing from prison and will provide critical information about how trauma-informed reentry programming impacts traditional reentry outcomes and identify key mechanisms of action.
Category: Study Protocol, Trauma, Men
Behavioral Health Literacy: A New Construct to Improve Outcomes Among Jail Residents
| Author: Carrie Pettus, Stephanie Kennedy, Tanya Renn, Stephen Tripodi
Jail residents have disproportionate rates of behavioral health disorders (BHDs); untreated BHD symptoms bring people into jail settings and are associated with re-arrest after release. Although lack of motivation to seek out and engage in BHD treatment is often used to explain these outcomes, individuals may have limited knowledge about BHDs and their symptoms, when and why treatment is warranted, and how to access treatment. We propose a new construct called behavioral health literacy to facilitate linkage between individuals with BHDs and appropriate treatment options.
Category: Mental Health, Substance Use, Reentry
Trauma Informed Care Groups with Incarcerated Women: Comparing Seeking Safety and STAIR
| Author: Stephen Tripodi, Michael Killian, Matt Gilmore, Elizabeth Curley, Lauren Herod
Almost all incarcerated women have experienced at least one lifetime traumatic event that often leads to limited coping skills and mental health problems. This study evaluated two different trauma-informed care groups for incarcerated women – Seeking Safety and STAIR – and found that participants who participated in either program had significant improvements in anxiety, depression, and coping self-efficacy. Results indicate the importance of screening for trauma and offering correctional-based programming to address trauma before release
Category: Trauma, Incarcerated Women
Traumatic experiences before incarceration in a county jail
| Author: Stephen Tripodi, Elizabeth Curley, Sierra Ross
This report describes the traumatic experiences of individuals prior to their incarceration in a county jail. Nearly 70% of study participants experienced a traumatic event in the year prior to their incarceration, with the majority of those affected reporting more than one traumatic event. Among study participants, 24% were violently assaulted, 15% lost a loved one to homicide, 18% witnessed a serious injury or death, 26% experienced a serious health incident, and 35% received news of the death or injury of a loved one.
Smart Decarceration Practice Behaviors for Social Work Competencies
| Author: Phillipe Copeland, Daniel Jacob, Diane Young, Annie Grier, Stephanie Kennedy, Stephen Tripodi
This tool was conceived by a members of the “Promote Smart Decarceration” Grand Challenge Education Working Group to provide guidance for social work administrators, instructors, and students on how to effectively incorporate “smart decarceration” as a focus for social work education using the CSWE social work competencies.
This tool incorporates smart decarceration-related practice behaviors for ready application into both classroom curricula and field practicums.
Category: Grand Challenges, Smart Decarceration
Pathways to Recidivism for women released from prison:A Mediated model
| Author: Stephen Tripodi, Carrie Pettus-Davis, Kimberly Bender, Michael Fitzgerald, Tanya Renn, Stephanie Kennedy
Findings showed no direct relationship between childhood trauma and reincarceration for women in the sample, although there was a significant mediated relationship from childhood trauma to depression to reincarceration. Results suggest the importance of addressing incarcerated women’s trauma before release, assessing for depression, and using empirically-supported interventions to treat depression when applicable.
Category: Incarcerated Women, Reentry
The Quality of Life Perception Gap in Prison Health Care Settings
| Author: Stephanie Prost, Stephen Tripodi, Jeffrey Lacasse
Peer caregivers are specially-trained incarcerated persons who support the needs of patients in correctional health care settings. Their role is of particular importance in light of the growing population of older adult prisoners with complex health problems in U.S. prisons. The purpose of the current study was to examine the disparity between patient and peer caregiver ratings of patient quality of life in a sample of correctional health dyads (n = 52) in a state prison system.
The Intersectional Effects of Race and Gender on Time to Reincarceration
| Author: Katie Ropes Berry, Stephanie Kennedy, Margaret Lloyd, Christopher Veeh, Stephen Tripodi
People of color are disproportionately incarcerated and reincarcerated after release. In an 8-year analysis of more than 21,000 individuals leaving state prisons, Black men were incarcerated more often and more quickly when compared to all other race/gender groups. However, with two exceptions (age at intake and marital status), Black men had lower risk scores on most variables when compared to other members of the sample. The interaction of race and gender was a potent predictor of time to reincarceration, even when controlling for a range of identified risk factors.
Category: Reentry, Recidivism, Racial and Gender BIas
The Relationship Between Severe Mental Disorders and Recidivism in a Sample of Women Released from Prison.
| Author: Erin A. King, Stephen Tripodi, Christopher Veeh
Women are one of the fastest growing sectors of the prison population, and have different pathways into prison and differing needs during the reentry process when compared to men. Women report higher levels of mental health problems overall, and report more severe symptomatology. The current study focuses on the role of severe mental disorders (SMDs) for 2,311 women released from prison and how SMDs relate to recidivism. Women diagnosed with SMDs were 16% more likely to have recidivated at eight years post-release compared with women who were not diagnosed with an SMD (p < .05).
Category: Reentry, Recidivism, Mental Health, Incarcerated Women
The Relationship Between Interpersonal Victimization and Women’s Criminal Sentencing: A Latent Class Analysis
| Author: Stephanie Kennedy, Annelise M. Mennicke, Megan Feely, Stephen Tripodi
Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of incarcerated women differentiated by experiences of child abuse and intimate partner violence victimization. Four classes were extracted—Low Victimization, Child Abuse, Lifetime Physical and Psychological Abuse, and Lifetime Sexual Abuse; classes were then related to current sentence length, holding criminological predictors constant. Women in the Child Abuse and Lifetime Sexual Abuse classes had significantly longer sentences, despite the lack of significant between-class differences on criminological predictors.
Category: Incarcerated Women, Trauma, Sentencing
Incarcerated Women’s Experiences and Perceptions of Participating in Research
| Author: Lisa Schelbe, Amanda Hardwick, Ashley N. Wilfong, Cynthia E. Hanifin, Stephen Tripodi, Carrie Pettus-Davis
The research process within prisons has largely considered researchers’ perspectives. Only one known study explicitly examined incarcerated persons’ perceptions and no known studies have explored incarcerated persons’ experiences with research on sensitive topics. This study examines incarcerated women’s experiences with participating in research on victimization. A thematic analysis was conducted on responses to open-ended questions about participating in a research study from 227 women in two prisons who participated in a study about victimization.
Category: Incarcerated Women, Trauma
Evaluating Seeking Safety for Women in Prison: A Randomized Controlled Trial
| Author: Stephen Tripodi, Annelise M. Mennicke, Susan McCarter, Katie Ropes Berry
This study assessed the effectiveness of Seeking Safety on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with incarcerated women.
Category: Incarcerated Women
Gender differences in experiences of social support among men and women releasing from prison
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Christopher Veeh, Maxine Davis, Stephen Tripodi
Positive social support is critically important to postprison well-being outcomes. However, researchers and program developers are still trying to understand how to best promote stable and sustainable social support for formerly incarcerated individuals during reentry to the community. We sought to add to the body of knowledge on social support and prisoner reentry by comparing men and women releasing from prison on the quality (e.g., positive or negative) and amount of informal social support.
Category: Reentry, Incarcerated Women, Gender Differences
Assessing Attitude and Reincarceration Outcomes Associated With In-Prison Domestic Violence Treatment Program Completion
| Author: Annelise M. Mennicke, Stephen Tripodi, Christopher Veeh, Dina Wilke, Stephanie Kennedy
Studies indicate that as many as 30%–56% of incarcerated men have perpetrated domestic violence, and that factors related to domestic violence perpetration are associated with long-term recidivism after release. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of an in-prison domestic violence treatment program called STOP and Change Direction to increase positive attitudes toward women, decrease levels of criminal thinking, and reduce general recidivism rates for program completers.