The metropolitan context of substance use and substance use disorders among US adults on probation or parole supervision
| Author: John Moore, Tanya Renn, Christopher Veeh
Study findings highlight the differences of substance use and substance use disorders between levels of metropolitan areas for those on probation or parole. Findings suggest that cocaine use should be emphasized in clinical services in large metropolitan areas, whereas methamphetamine use may be prioritized in nonmetropolitan areas.
Category: Substance Use, Probation and Parole
Examining Dose–Response Relationships Between Childhood Victimization, Depression, Symptoms of Psychosis, and Substance Misuse for Incarcerated Women
| Author: Stephanie Kennedy, Stephen Tripodi, Carrie Pettus-Davis, Jaime Ayers
The current study uses the dose–response model to examine the relationships between childhood victimization events and subsequent depression, symptoms of psychosis, and substance misuse in a sample of 230 randomly selected incarcerated women in the United States. Results on the frequency of victimization were mixed. In this sample, both frequency of physical abuse and frequency of sexual abuse significantly predicted current symptoms of psychosis, but only frequency of physical abuse significantly predicted substance misuse.
Category: Trauma, Mental Health, Substance Use
Acceptability of a Social Support Intervention for Re-entering Prisoners
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Matthew Owen Howard, Vithya Murugan, Amelia Roberts-Lewis, Anna M. Scheyett, Claire Botnick, Michelle Vance
A relatively unexplored area of prisoner reentry programs involves actively engaging the prisoner’s naturally occurring social support in the reentry interventions. Most reentering prisoners rely on loved ones for social support, but that support is often fragile. Interventions that strengthen the sustainability of social support are crucial to a successful reentry. This study evaluates the acceptability of a social support intervention for male prisoners with substance-use disorders who are reentering the community.
Category: Reentry, Social Support, Substance Use
Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole
| Author: Seana Golder, Martin T. Hall, TK Logan, George E. Higgins, Amanda Dishon, Tanya Renn, Katherine M. Winham
Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, while 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past two years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees.
Category: Substance Use, Incarcerated Women
Histories of childhood victimization and subsequent mental health problems, substance use, and sexual victimization for a sample of incarcerated women in the US.
| Author: Stephen Tripodi, Carrie Pettus-Davis
Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use.
Category: Incarcerated Women, Trauma, Mental Health, Substance Use
Naturally occurring social support in interventions for former prisoners with substance use disorders: Conceptual framework and program model
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Matthew Owen Howard, Amelia Roberts-Lewis, Anna M. Scheyett
Naturally-occurring social support is underutilized in interventions with former prisoners with substance use disorders. This paper proposes a conceptual framework followed by a program model to inform the development of naturally-occurring social support interventions with former prisoners with substance use disorders.
Category: Reentry, Social Support, Substance Use
Substance Abuse Treatment for Juvenile Offenders: A Review of Quasi-Experimental and Experimental Research
| Author: Stephen Tripodi, Kimberly Bender
This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the research literature to assess the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programs for alcohol and marijuana use by juvenile offenders. The literature and database search generated five experimental or quasi-experimental studies that assessed alcohol outcomes for juvenile offenders and five experimental or quasi-experimental studies that assessed marijuana outcomes for juvenile offenders. Implications for future research are discussed.
Category: Substance Use, Juvenile Offenders
From the “streets” to “normal life”: Assessing the role of social support in release planning for HIV-positive and substance-involved prisoners.
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Anna M. Scheyett, Danielle Hailey, Carol Golin, David Wohl
In 2005, there were 20,888 prisoners in the U.S. prisons known to be HIV-positive, many substance-involved. The high reincarceration rate of substance-involved prisoners, coupled with the fact that substance-involved prisoners are more prone to HIV-risk behaviors in the community, necessitates attention to preventing substance use and HIV transmission risk behaviors of prisoners upon reentry to communities. We use a social support framework to explore the role of social support in HIV+ prisoners’ expectations of release and postrelease plans.
Category: Reentry, HIV/AIDS, Substance Use, Social Support
Determinants of substance abuse among incarcerated adolescents: Implications for brief treatment and crisis intervention.
| Author: Stephen Tripodi, David W. Springer, Kevin Corcoran
This study assessed the determinants of substance abuse among incarcerated youth. Because substance abuse is a predictor of incarceration and conduct disorder is known to increase the chances of youth abusing substances, the purpose of this study was to determine what seminal symptoms of conduct disorder seem to be the risk factors for substance abusers among incarcerated youth.