The Role of Preparatory Programming in Increasing the Effectiveness of a Sex Offender Treatment Intervention
| Author: Tanya Renn, Christopher Veeh, Melissa D. Grady, David Edwards, Carrie Pettus-Davis, Katherine Kelton
Increasing the effectiveness of programs designed to treat individuals who have sexually offended is a critical step in reducing the rates of sexual violence in our communities. Yet, the research on such programs have yielded inconsistent results with regards to their effectiveness in reducing sexual recidivism among participants. Some researchers have explored whether the dose of treatment impacts recidivism, but there remains limited knowledge around the dose-response relationship for individuals who have sexually offended.
Category: Sex Offenders
Associations of Childhood and Adult Trauma on Substance Misuse and Mental Health Among Incarcerated Men
| Author: John Moore, Tanya Renn, Christopher Veeh, Carrie Pettus-Davis
Men are overrepresented in prisons and report higher rates of trauma exposure than the general population. This study examines the role of trauma exposure across the lifespan on substance use disorder, mental health status, and emotional well-being among incarcerated individuals nearing community reentry. Childhood trauma exposure severity was significantly associated with generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and reduced emotional well-being. Adult cumulative trauma exposure was significantly associated with substance use disorder.
Category: Trauma, Mental Health, Substance Use
The Well-Being Development Model: A New Conceptual Framework to Guide Transitional Reentry Services for Individuals Releasing from Incarceration
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Christopher Veeh, Tanya Renn, Stephanie Kennedy
Learn about the Well-Being Development Model (WBDM), the conceptual framework upon which the 5-Key Model for Reentry was built. This paper details the history of reentry and the development of this innovative well-being-oriented theoretical model by academic researchers, correctional stakeholders, practitioners, and individuals who had experienced incarceration. This paper is under review for publication.
Trauma and Loss During Reentry
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Tanya Renn, Stephanie Kennedy
This report presents data about the extremely stressful life events experienced by study participants in the 8 months after they left incarceration and returned home. These stressful life events included losing a loved one to homicide, having been violently assaulted, witnessing violence and death in the home or community, finding out about the death or serious injury of a loved one, being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness, and losing critical resources like housing, employment, income, transportation, and social support.
Category: Reentry, Well-Being, 5-Key Model for Reentry
Trauma and Loss During Reentry: Key Takeaways
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Tanya Renn, Stephanie Kennedy
Read key takeaways from the Seventh Quarterly Report from the 5-Key Model study which details extremely stressful life events experienced by study participants in the 8 months after release from prison including losing a loved one to homicide, having been violently assaulted, witnessing violence and death, learning about the death or serious injury of a loved one, being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness, and losing vital resources like housing, employment, income, transportation, and social support.
Category: Reentry, 5-Key Model for Reentry, Well-Being
A Point-In-Time Survey of State Department of Corrections Prison-based Programming
| Author: Tanya Renn, Carrie Pettus-Davis, Christopher Veeh
Research indicates that providing services to incarcerated individuals increases the chance that they will be successful upon reentry to communities. The current study assessed the provision of services (i.e. trauma and reentry) in state departments of corrections (DOCs) throughout the United States. DOCs from all fifty states and the District of Columbia were contacted to determine what services were provided to prisoners, with 44 of 51 providing responses. Results suggest that DOCs provide a range of programming, as well as assessments.
Category: In-Prison Intervention
Employment and Behavioral Health-5-Key Model Preliminary Results for Policy Stakeholders
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Tanya Renn, Christopher Veeh
This report features preliminary 5-Key Model results on study participant employment and behavioral health outcomes approximately eight months post-release. Results are presented by state to maximize usefulness to policy stakeholders.
Category: 5-Key Model for Reentry, Results for Policymakers
Intervention development study of the five-key model for reentry: An evidence-driven prisoner reentry intervention
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Tanya Renn, Christopher Veeh, Jacob Eikenberry
Over the past decade and a half, substantial resources were poured into the development of prisoner reentry programs. However, the excitement that surrounded the initial rollout of reentry programs has begun to wane from a lack of substantive change to the number of individuals who return to prison. Therefore, this article details the development of an intervention that can provide a new path forward for prisoner reentry programs.
Category: 5-Key Model for Reentry, Well-Being
Pathways to Recidivism for women released from prison:A Mediated model
| Author: Stephen Tripodi, Carrie Pettus-Davis, Kimberly Bender, Michael Fitzgerald, Tanya Renn, Stephanie Kennedy
Findings showed no direct relationship between childhood trauma and reincarceration for women in the sample, although there was a significant mediated relationship from childhood trauma to depression to reincarceration. Results suggest the importance of addressing incarcerated women’s trauma before release, assessing for depression, and using empirically-supported interventions to treat depression when applicable.
Category: Incarcerated Women, Reentry
Understanding unmet treatment need among formerly incarcerated men with substance use disorders: A mixed methods exploration
| Author: Sara Beeler-Stinn, Tanya Renn, Carrie Pettus-Davis
This study identifies how formerly incarcerated men and their social support partners understand the treatment needs of substance use disorders how knowledge about substance use disorders impacts service utilization. Findings emphasize the need for psychoeducation during incarceration and after release on behavioral health issues and highlight the importance of incorporating social support into the treatment process.
Category: Reentry, Substance Use
What Trauma Looks Like for Incarcerated Men: A Study of Men’s Lifetime Trauma Exposure in Two State Prisons
| Author: Maria Morrison, Carrie Pettus-Davis, Tanya Renn, Christopher Veeh, Christopher Weatherly
While it is understood that high rates of trauma exposure are common among incarcerated male populations, there is limited data on the nature of the trauma exposure. This study examined the trauma histories of a randomly selected sample of 67 men incarcerated in the Missouri Department of Corrections. The analyses revealed several patterns among study participants, including near universal trauma exposure in adolescence with the most frequent exposures involving witnessing or being proximate to violent deaths of family and friends.
Proposing a population-specific intervention approach to treat trauma among men during and after incarceration.
| Author: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Tanya Renn, Jeffrey Lacasse, Robert Motley
A significant treatment gap exists for incarcerated men with lifetime traumatic experiences. A small research base for trauma interventions for incarcerated women is emerging, but incarcerated men have largely been ignored. Men comprise 90% of the incarcerated population and are at the greatest risk to be rearrested for a new crime after release.
Category: Trauma, In-Prison Intervention, Reentry
Promoting Reentry Well-Being: A Novel Assessment Tool for Individualized Service Assignment in Prisoner Reentry Programs
| Author: Christopher Veeh, Tanya Renn, Carrie Pettus-Davis
The Reentry Well-Being Assessment Tool (RWAT) is an innovative practice tool to systematically guide individualized assignment into reentry program services based on a participant’s changing needs during the transition from prison to the community. Clearly defined treatment targets that promote an individual’s well-being are paired with a comprehensive set of assessments within the RWAT to measure progress throughout a prisoner reentry program.
Category: Reentry, Well-Being
Correlates of HIV Risks Among Women on Probation and Parole.
| Author: Malitta Engstrom, Katherine M. Winham, Seana Golder, George E. Higgins, Tanya Renn, TK Logan
This article examines HIV risks among a sample of 406 women on probation and parole with lifetime histories of victimization who were recruited from an urban community in the southern U.S. Guided by the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm, we analyze the significance of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social support in relationship to three sexual risks and one drug use risk using multivariable regression.
The Economic Burden of Incarceration in the U.S.
| Author: Michael McLaughlin, Carrie Pettus-Davis, Derek Brown, Christopher Veeh, Tanya Renn
This study estimates the annual economic burden of incarceration in the US. The $80 billion spent annually on corrections is frequently cited as the cost of incarceration, but this figure ignores important social costs including costs to incarcerated persons, families, children, and communities. This study draws on a burgeoning area of scholarship to assign monetary values to 23 different costs, which yield an aggregate burden of $1 Trillion.